In conservative estimates, the world population will reach 10 billion by 2050. The majority of this increase will occur in developing countries, and half the population will be in cities (United Nations). This will compound the issue of public infrastructure. To ensure that food is distributed efficiently, we need a plan that maps out a modular and inclusive network.
Both developing and developed countries face issues in infrastructure. To accommodate different levels of pre-existing networks, Mission 2019 suggests two different plans to overcome this obstacle. For developing countries, we suggest a low cost projects with expandable frameworks. For developed countries, since there is already some structure in place, we propose a transitions toward a more resource efficient layout. Both solutions focus on a system that allows for future development.
There are several methods to plan transportation and infrastructure to benefit commercial and residential development. The three most common are rational planning, incremental planning, and transit-oriented development.
In rational planning, each problem and solution is explored in depth before being implemented. Although it is effective in finding the optimal solution, it requires more time and resources than one may have at their disposal (Comprehensive Planning of Major Cities).
Incremental planning consists of many small projects that each address a problem. This method does not require extensive planning or resources because each project can be handled by a different organization. However, since it lacks an overarching plan, inconsistencies between components can make the entire project less effective (Eisinger, 2011).
The transit-oriented method is a relatively recent shift in development which emphasizes sustainability and ease of transportation. Transportation stops act as centers from which developments expand. This encourages the use of public transportation and reduces private automobiles. While there has been great success with this plan, it requires a pre-existing public transit system, which not all countries have, nor can afford at the present (Transit-Oriented Development).
Given the variety of conditions we are faced with, these methods are too rigid to apply one to all situations. The best way to meet the demand for infrastructure then is to combine these methods.
Transportation in Developing Countries: Modular Approach
Transportation within developing countries is where the brunt of the problem of food security lies. To increase connectivity between producers and consumers and set up the country for a sustainable future, we propose a planning method that mixes rational and incremental strategies. We would use comprehensive problem identification of rational design combined with the feasible, small scale projects of incremental As a result, a standard would be maintained, but the small projects would minimize stress on the government to finance what would have been a nation-wide infrastructure project.
This approach frees up resources that can now be allocated toward cohesiveness on an international scale. Constructing infrastructure that spans across multiple counties a project that will require much more deliberation, government intervention, and comprehensive approach. Unlike the small scale projects that we suggest for development within a country, connectivity between nations must be a single, cohesive investment.
Admittedly, we are suggesting a method of planning that would be very difficult to carry out due to various factors such as political and economic instability as well as misguided expectations as past researchers have concluded (Berry, 1973; Easterly, 2002). It should be noted that because the focus is upon a long term urban development plan for all developing countries, specific legislations and figures are not included. Secondly, this plan calls more for a change in mindset taken in the approach taken toward urbanization. Past relief efforts have been formulated using templates derived from western countries. These templates do not consider many local conditions, and therefore are not applicable. However, there are additional details as to what external factors or techniques that will smoothen out some aspects of the implementation of our idea. A program that would be among these suggestions include a food-for-work program that would employ the local population in rural road projects led by a small group of educators on techniques. This would provide some relief from economic stress for the local people while ensuring that these small projects that no outside corporation would benefit from are completed. It is also suggested that an international organization such as the United Nations and the World Bank alleviate some of the resource needs of local governing bodies by providing incentives such as initial funding and building materials.
Transportation in Developed Countries: Efficiency
As for developed countries, development is not a pressing issue but there is certainly a lot of room for improvement. Urban cities are the epitome of efficient resource use but the benefits that it provides are undone by sprawling suburbs. In light of the overwhelming indicators that society as a whole needs to be more conscious of resource consumption, there has been a trend toward transit-oriented development. This change from a lack of consideration toward transportation to consciously designing development that incentivizes use of public transportation or biking and walking marks a deviation from resource consumption. Already being implemented in various developed countries like the United States, these new communities have shown great promise. While it does require the existence of an existing public transportation system, which may be costly, it does provide a workable solution to housing a growing population.
The focus of this article when written, was not to come up with the exact solution as to how each country, developing and developed, should go about their development projects, but instead, to explore current planning methods and determine the optimal way to go about future works. There have been countless projects in the past whose goals were to improve living conditions and the connectivity in developing countries that fell short of their purpose. What we propose is that a change intentions and ideologies in the approach that will be more influenced by the local conditions and hopefully, lead to a development that is scalable for the growing population.
Comprehensive Planning of Major Cities. (1982). Urban Planning Practice In Developing Countries, 75–76. http://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-022225-7.50008-5
Eisinger, A., & Tillner, S. (2011). Lernen von L.A. – Otto Wagner weitergedacht. Die Transformation des Wiener Westgürtels / Learning from L.A. – Proceeding from Otto Wagner. The Transformation of Vienna’s Westgürtel. UrbanRESET Freilegen Immanenter Potenziale Städtischer Räume/How to Activate Immanent Potentials of Urban Spaces. http://doi.org/10.1515/9783034610377.184
Transit- Oriented Development (TOD). Retrieved November 23, 2015, from http://www.sustainablecitiesinstitute.org/topics/land-use-and-planning/transit-oriented-development-(tod)
World population projected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050 | UN DESA | United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved November 23, 2015, from https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/2015-report.html